Instructional and Assessment Strategies/Proficiency Level

Instructional and Assessment Strategies/Proficiency Level

 

 

Preproduction

Description

Corresponding student actions

A student:

  Cannot speak or understand English with the exception of a few concrete, high-frequency words

  Cannot use higher order thinking skills in English

  Derives all meaning from the context of the situation

  Is internalizing language; “silent period”

  Cannot read or write English

A student:

   Classifies pictures without verbalizing logic behind them

   Makes picture collage of topic

   Builds picture dictionary based upon content area objectives

   Points to an appropriate response

   Creates pictorial graph / chart

   Uses body language

Appropriate Instructional Modifications

Assessment Strategies

  Provide alternative texts

  Highlight important concepts

  Stress key vocabulary

  Model vocabulary and concepts

  Speak and write directions simple English

  Print notes instead of using cursive

  Provide lecture notes in simple English

  Avoid slang and idiomatic phrases

  Incorporate schematic mapping

  Activate prior knowledge

  Develop problem-solving skills

  Teach and model cognitive strategies

  Explain with pictures and realia (customs, objects, games, sounds, etc.)

  Use graphic organizers

  Provide hands-on experiences

  Use manipulatives

  Do demonstrations and role plays

  Use body movements and gestures

  Utilize music such as chants and songs

  Use closed-captioned option on videos

  Provide sequencing activities

  Allow extra time to complete work

  Assign a study buddy

  Permit bilingual dictionaries

  Use a bilingual tutor to pre-teach important concepts

  Allow one-word answers

  Allow illustrated answers

  Accept errors

  Allow use of native language

  Be aware of cultural differences

Students can show mastery of concepts by:

  Creating picture books illustrating key concepts

  Matching words to pictures

  Making a personal bilingual picture dictionary

  Building collages to explain ideas

  Drawing and label sequential pictures

  Constructing hands-on projects

  Classifying pictures and objects

  Role-playing events

  Producing bilingual diagrams

  Creating a “photo album” from magazine pictures to explain

  Making maps and graphs

  Participating in cooperative learning projects

Teachers can assess mastery of concepts by:

  Asking yes/no questions

  Assigning a pass/fail

  Creating a grading contract

  Exempting student from traditional / modified tests

  Giving oral tests

 

 

Early Production

Description

Corresponding student actions

A student at Early Production:

  Can communicate at a basic level

  Can understand some English in highly contextualized situations, but may not produce language

  Uses single words and simple phrases to answer questions

  Learning takes place through non-verbal cues and the native language

  Experiences difficulty with higher order thinking in English

  Limited reading and writing in English

In addition to the above actions, a student Early Production:

  Labels pictorial charts with key vocabulary and / or concepts

  Labels pictures with single words and / or phrases

  Sequences evens (time / order)

  Uses invented spelling

  Uses graphic organizers

  Answers yes / no, either / or questions

Appropriate Instructional Modifications

Assessment Strategies

  Provide alternative / simplified texts

  Highlight important concepts

  Stress key vocabulary

  Model vocabulary and concepts

  Speak and write directions simple English

  Provide lecture notes in simple English

  Avoid slang and idiomatic phrases

  Incorporate schematic mapping

  Activate prior knowledge

  Develop problem-solving skills

  Teach and model cognitive strategies

  Explain with pictures and realia (customs, objects, games, sounds, etc.)

  Use graphic organizers

  Provide hands-on experiences

  Do demonstrations and role plays

  Use body movements and gestures

  Utilize music such as chants and songs

  Use closed-captioned option on videos

  Allow extra time to complete work

  Assign a study buddy

  Permit bilingual dictionaries

  Use a bilingual tutor to pre-teach important concepts

  Allow illustrated answers

  Accept errors

  Allow questions of the obvious

  Allow a tape recorder for note-taking

  Ask if students understand

  Allow simple phrased answers

  Be aware of cultural differences

Students can show mastery of concepts by:

  Participating in cooperative learning projects

  Matching words and phrases to pictures

  Comparing / contrasting objects

  Keeping a learning log with pictures and words to remember key concepts

  Making a personal bilingual picture dictionary

  Building collages to explain ideas

  Drawing and label sequential pictures

  Constructing hands-on projects

  Making maps and graphs

  Classifying pictures and objects

  Creating a graphic organizer

  Providing word banks for writing assignments

  Taking modified tests (i.e. open book, labeling diagrams and pictures)

  Answering what, when, and where questions

  Writing captions for pictures /  photos

  Role-playing events

  Producing bilingual diagrams

Teachers can assess mastery of concepts by:

  Creating a grading contract

  Giving oral tests

  Assigning a pass / fail grade

  Having a teacher’s assistant help give test

  Asking yes / no questions

  Modifying tests (shorten tests, use different questions, allow students to use books or notes, etc.)

 

Speech Emergence

Description

Corresponding student actions

A student:

  Appears to understand more English than s/he really does

  Functions fairly well in face-to-face contextualized conversations

  Experiences difficulty with academic language and higher order thinking skills in English

  Can learn using English, still needs many non-verbal cues to construct meaning

  Uses simple sentences and simple past tense to verbalize information

  Beginning to read and write in English, but is more than 2 years behind grade level

In addition to the above actions, a student:

  Classifies and gives reasons in simple sentences

  Gives simple explanations about topic

  Describe topic or event

  Outlines topics using time sequence as well as main idea and supporting details

  Formulates questions

  Compares/ contrasts information

  conducts simple interviews

Appropriate Instructional Modifications

Assessment Strategies

  Assign a study buddy

  Provide lecture notes in simple English

  Use closed-caption option on videos

  Permit bilingual dictionaries

  Allow extra time to complete work

  Provide written directions in simple English

  Speak and write directions

  Provide simplified readings

  Highlight important concepts

  Stress key vocabulary

  Activate prior knowledge

  Use graphic organizers

  Incorporate schematic mapping

  Teach and model cognitive strategies

  Develop problem-solving skills

  Use process writing

  Provide hands-on experiences

  Do demonstrations and role plays

  Use music such as chants and songs

  Use body movements and gestures

  Ask if students understand

  Allow questions of the obvious

  Accept errors

  Use bilingual tutor to pre-teach concepts

 

Students can show mastery of concepts by:

   Participating in cooperative learning projects

   Comparing / contrasting objects

   Making personal bilingual dictionaries

   Constructing hand-on projects

   Making maps and graphs

   Role-playing events

   Creating graphic organizers

   Keeping a learning log with pictures and sentences describing key concepts

   Taking modified tests (i.e. open book, shortened, oral, more time)

   Answering what, when, where, how, and why questions

   Writing captions for each picture

   Creating a persuasive argument

   Justifying an opinion

Teachers can assess mastery of concepts by:

   Creating a grading contract

   Providing word banks for writing assignments

   Modifying tests (allowing students to use books or notes, shortening, giving oral test, allowing more time to complete tests, etc.)

 

 

 

 

Intermediate Fluency

Description

Corresponding student actions

A student:

  Appears to be completely fluent in English: speech production is complex

  Has not mastered the ability to use English as a tool for learning

  Finds cognitively complex tasks in English difficult and reads approximately 2 years below grade level

In addition to the above actions, a student:

  Expresses reasoning more fluently

  Expresses opinions

  Criticizes and justifies

  Uses persuasion

  Answers how and why questions

  Predicts the outcome of events

  Drafts and edits assignments

Appropriate Instructional Modifications

Assessment Strategies

  Incorporate schematic mapping

  Use graphic organizers

  Teach and model cognitive strategies

  Activate prior knowledge

  Develop problem-solving skills and application skills

  Emphasize and model comprehension strategies

  Provide written directions in simple English

  Speak and write directions

  Provide hands-on experiences

  Stress key concepts

  Allow extra time and support to complete cognitively complex tasks

  Read and write in the content areas

  Use process writing

 

Students can show mastery of concepts by:

  Participating in cooperative learning projects

  Constructing hands-on projects

  Making maps and graphs

  Creating graphic organizers

  Synthesizing or evaluating information

  Keeping a learning log explaining important concepts

 

 

Proficient  Level

Description

Corresponding student actions

Is completely fluent in English – comparable skills to native English speakers

 

A student:

  Understands the language of the teacher and instruction

  Comprehends and extracts information

  Uses oral language appropriately and effectively in learning activities in the classroom and in social situations within the school

  Comprehends and interprets content-area texts at the age- grade-appropriate level

  Produces written texts with content and format, fulfilling classroom assignments at the age- or grade-appropriate level

Resources:

Krajicek,Stephanie : The Next Step: Making Sense of Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Levels & English Language Proficiency (ELP) Standards.  Volume 3, Number 4 issue of the Write Connections quarterly newsletter(2008).

Michigan Department of Education English Language Proficiency Levels Performance Descriptors.

Michigan English Language Proficiency Standards.